前言

软件源是Linux系统免费的应用程序安装仓库,很多的应用软件都会这收录到这个仓库里面,按类型分则有:

  • 软件仓库:各类软件的二进制包和源代码
  • ISO镜像:发行版的ISO文件

软件源可以是网络服务器,是光盘,甚至是硬盘上的一个目录。

通过对源的了解可以知道,源会有很多个,有大有小,有慢有快,选择不同的源安装速度,软件版本也就会有不同。

不同版本的Linux系统源也各不相同,即每个版本有自己不同的源。

如Ubuntu 的源分布在全球范围内的服务器上。Ubuntu 默认使用的官方源的服务器在欧洲,从国内访问速度很慢。国内的阿里、搜狐、网易等互联网公司以及一些重点高校也都有 Ubuntu 的源,所以在装完 Ubuntu 系统后最好把官方源更换为国内的源。

举个相似的例子:

Windows系统需要更新系统漏洞,同样,ubuntu也需要;

Windows需要连接到微软放置补丁的仓库,ubuntu需要连接到源下载系统补丁或软件;

Windows下载补丁的速度如龟爬,ubuntu连接到默认源的速度也不快。

但不同的是:

Windows下你只能从官网下载补丁,ubuntu中你却有着更大的自由选择权。

所以,设置源的主要目的是为了获得更快的速度来保持系统的安全稳定和软件的完整。

教程

Debian更换源

#备份原软件源
Debianmv /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bak 
#建立新源
vi /etc/apt/sources.list 
#修改之后更新源以及更新软件
sudo apt-get update && apt-get upgrade 

Ubuntu更换源

# 先备份系统原有的软件源配置
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bak
# 将复制的阿里源粘贴到新建的 sources.list 中
sudo vi /etc/apt/sources.list
# 更新源以及更新软件
sudo apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

Centos

# 先备份系统原有的软件源配置
mv /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo.backup
# 切换路径:
cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# 下载对应centos系统的软件源(演示为阿里云镜像站,可自行更换。):
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
# 生成缓存
yum clean all
yum makecache

仓库

国内镜像站

名称网址
网易https://mirrors.163.com/
搜狐https://mirrors.sohu.com/
中科大https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/
清华大学https://mirror.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/
北京交大https://mirror.bjtu.edu.cn/

Debian

Debian11

官方源
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian/ bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ bullseye-security main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ bullseye-security main contrib non-free
阿里源
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian-security/ bullseye-security main
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian-security/ bullseye-security main
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ bullseye-backports main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ bullseye-backports main non-free contrib
腾讯源
deb https://mirrors.tencent.com/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.tencent.com/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb https://mirrors.tencent.com/debian-security/ bullseye-security main
deb-src https://mirrors.tencent.com/debian-security/ bullseye-security main
deb https://mirrors.tencent.com/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.tencent.com/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb https://mirrors.tencent.com/debian/ bullseye-backports main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.tencent.com/debian/ bullseye-backports main non-free contrib
网易源
deb https://mirrors.163.com/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.163.com/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb https://mirrors.163.com/debian-security/ bullseye-security main
deb-src https://mirrors.163.com/debian-security/ bullseye-security main
deb https://mirrors.163.com/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.163.com/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb https://mirrors.163.com/debian/ bullseye-backports main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.163.com/debian/ bullseye-backports main non-free contrib
华为源
deb https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian/ bullseye main non-free contrib
deb https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian-security/ bullseye-security main
deb-src https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian-security/ bullseye-security main
deb https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian/ bullseye-updates main non-free contrib
deb https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian/ bullseye-backports main non-free contrib
deb-src https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian/ bullseye-backports main non-free contrib
清华镜像源
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye main contrib non-free
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye main contrib non-free
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye-updates main contrib non-free
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian/ bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security bullseye-security main contrib non-free
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/debian-security bullseye-security main contrib non-free

Debian10

官方源
deb     http://deb.debian.org/debian buster main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian buster main contrib non-free
deb     http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ buster/updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian-security/ buster/updates main contrib non-free 
deb     http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-updates main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-updates main contrib non-free
阿里源
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ buster main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ buster main non-free contrib
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian-security buster/updates main
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian-security buster/updates main
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ buster-updates main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ buster-updates main non-free contrib
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ buster-backports main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/debian/ buster-backports main non-free contrib
网易源
deb http://mirrors.163.com/debian/ buster main non-free contrib
deb http://mirrors.163.com/debian/ buster-updates main non-free contrib
deb http://mirrors.163.com/debian/ buster-backports main non-free contrib
deb http://mirrors.163.com/debian-security/ buster/updates main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/debian/ buster main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/debian/ buster-updates main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/debian/ buster-backports main non-free contrib
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/debian-security/ buster/updates main non-free contrib

Ubuntu

Ubuntu 20.4

官方源
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse

阿里源
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
腾讯云源
deb https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse

deb https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse

deb https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse

deb https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.cloud.tencent.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
网易163源
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
清华大学源
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS

阿里源
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
中科大源
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
163源
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
清华源
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

Centos